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90% des zones protégées sont soumises à des activités humaines néfastes

Constructions urbaines, axes de transport, forage d’hydrocarbure… L’empiétement des humains sur les zones protégées ne cesse de s’intensifier. Un groupe de chercheurs a décidé d’évaluer de quelle manière les activités humaines pèsent sur les zones protégées menacées. Et après avoir passé en revue des millions de kilomètres carrés, ils sont en mesure d’affirmer que les mesures de protection s’amenuisent. Pire, certaines zones ne seraient protégées que sur le papier.

Dans un rapport publié jeudi 17 mai dans la revue scientifique américaine Science, un groupe de chercheurs estime qu’un tiers des aires désignées comme “protégées” par les États subisse “une importante pression humaine”. Des conditions qui mettent notamment en péril la protection des espèces animales en danger, qui s’affaiblit à grande vitesse dans plus de 6 millions de kilomètres carrés de terres protégées.

“La plupart des pays font le premier pas et créent des zones protégées, mais ils s’arrêtent là et oublient le travail plus difficile et plus important consistant à financer la gestion de ces aires protégées, afin d’empêcher toute ingérence humaine d’importance”, expliquent en effet les auteurs du rapport.

Depuis 1992, la superficie des aires protégées a doublé dans le monde. Soucieuse de préserver la biodiversité de notre planète, la communauté internationale a en effet décidé de créer des zones protégées afin d’encadrer le développement des activités humaines et ainsi offrir un refuge aux espèces animales. Malheureusement, les infrastructures humaines continuent de se développer au sein même de ces réserves naturelles.

“On a découvert des infrastructures routières importantes comme des autoroutes, de l’agriculture industrielle, et même des villes entières à l’intérieur de zones qui étaient censées être consacrées à la protection de la nature”, expliquent Kendall Jones, chercheur à l’Université Queensland en Australie, et coauteur de cette étude.

Selon les estimations, plus de 90% des aires protégées seraient soumises à des “activités humaines néfastes”.

Les chercheurs appellent donc les États du monde entier à mobiliser les fonds nécessaires pour renforcer les mesures de protection de la biodiversité et citent notamment les réussites de certains pays en matière de réserves et de parcs naturels protégés (le sanctuaire de Keo Seima au Cambodge, le parc national Madidi en Bolivie, la réserve de biosphère de Yasuni en Equateur).

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