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Les émissions de méthane issues du secteur de l’élevage sous-estimées?

Les scientifiques estiment que 37% des émissions anthropiques de méthane, gaz à effet de serre en partie responsables du réchauffement climatique, proviennent du secteur de l’élevage agricole (en raison de la fermentation entérique des ruminants et de la fermentation de leurs déjections). Carbon Balance and Management a publié vendredi 29 septembre une étude tendant à démontrer que ces émissions avaient probablement été sous-estimées.

Les chiffres publiés par la revue scientifique montrent en effet que les émissions de CH4 seraient plus importantes que ce que la communauté scientifique avait jusqu’à présent évalué. En 2011, les émissions de méthane de l’élevage se sont avérées supérieures de 11% aux estimations scientifiques du Groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat (GIEC).

“Dans de nombreuses régions du monde, la quantité de bétail évolue, et l’élevage produit des bêtes plus grosses, ingérant un plus gros volume de nourriture. Cela, couplé avec des changements dans la gestion du bétail, peut conduire à des émissions accrues”, explique Julie Wolf, chercheuse au ministère américain de l’Agriculture et principale auteure du rapport.

Sur ces dernières décennies, la tendance n’est cependant pas uniforme et varie en fonction du pays concerné. On note par exemple une augmentation des émissions de méthane supérieure à la moyenne dans les régions qui se développent rapidement (comme l’Asie, l’Afrique ou encore l’Amérique latine).

“En revanche ces émissions ont augmenté moins fortement aux Etats-Unis, au Canada, et elles ont légèrement baissé en Europe occidentale”, précise Ghassem Asrar, co-auteur de l’étude et directeur du Joint Global Change Research Institute, basé dans le Maryland aux États-Unis.

Dans une étude publiée fin 2016, un groupe de 80 scientifiques de 15 nationalités différentes expliquaient que les émissions de méthane avaient dramatiquement augmenté au cours des 10 dernières années : depuis 2007, les relevés atmosphériques démontrent que la concentration de méthane dans l’atmosphère a augmenté dix fois plus vite qu’habituellement.

“Notre alimentation incluant de plus en plus de viande et de produits laitiers, son coût climatique tend à croître. Réduire la production de méthane issu des vaches ce n’est peut-être pas aussi spectaculaire que des éoliennes ou des panneaux solaires, mais c’est au moins aussi vital”, reconnait Dave Reay, professeur à l’université d’Edimbourg.

Le méthane est moins persistant mais beaucoup plus réchauffant que le dioxyde de carbone. Il représentait 16% des émissions de gaz à effet de serre en 2015.

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