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Le réchauffement climatique inquiète le PDG de Total

Christophe de Margerie ne sous-estime pas le réchauffement climatique.
PDG de Total, Christophe de Margerie (à droite) s'étonne que le réchauffement climatique « ne soit pas le premier sujet discuté à chaque réunion des Vingt-Sept ».

Forcément peu estimé des environnementalistes, Christophe de Margerie semble néanmoins un personnage moins caricatural que ce que son statut pourrait laisser croire.

Question de fond : peut-on être PDG d’un géant de l’or noir et du gaz et dans le même temps s’inquiéter pour la survie de la planète ? Big boss de Total, l’entreprise la plus prospère de France, désireuse d’exploiter les gaz de schiste sur le territoire national aux noms de l’indépendance énergétique, de la compétitivité française et des créations d’emplois – et, pour être complètement juste, qui investit, certes modérément au regard de ses immenses moyens, dans l’énergie solaire, ayant notamment racheté l’ancien numéro trois mondial du secteur SunPower -, M. de Margerie ne conteste pas, en tout cas, la véracité et la gravité du réchauffement climatique. Quand bien même la société qu’il dirige a une responsabilité qui ne saurait être sous-évaluée dans ce phénomène.

« C’est du sérieux », assure en effet, interviewé par nos confrères du Monde en marge du grand débat national sur la transition énergétique, celui qui, il y a quelques mois, a prophétisé une essence à deux euros le litre à brève échéance. Partisan de la création d’une communauté européenne de l’énergie, une proposition du chef de l’État, M. de Margerie se dit même « étonné que (le réchauffement climatique) ne soit pas le premier sujet discuté à chaque réunion des Vingt-Sept ».

Et de reconnaître que, jusqu’ici, les investissements consentis par Total pour pénétrer le marché des hydrocarbures de roche-mère au Texas (États-Unis) n’ont pas été à la hauteur des espérances, parce que réalisés « sur la base de prix du gaz beaucoup plus élevés que ceux d’aujourd’hui ». « Nous allons en revanche continuer nos investissements dans d’autres pays où les marchés sont porteurs comme la Chine, la Pologne et le Danemark, où nous devrions commencer un forage d’exploration cette année », tempère-t-il.

« Pour le moment, il n’y a pas d’alternative à la fracturation hydraulique »

Concernant la fracturation hydraulique, méthode d’extraction aux dommages écologiques avérés et interdite dans nos frontières depuis l’été 2011, M. de Margerie admet que, « pour le moment, il n’y a pas d’alternative ». « La piste de la fracturation de la roche par arc électrique sur laquelle nous travaillons avec l’Université de Pau n’est pas concluante. En tout état de cause, les chances qu’un travail conceptuel de laboratoire se transforme en technique réellement utilisable sont faibles. Il faut compter entre dix et vingt ans pour développer une technologie de rupture et si on veut un jour sortir du laboratoire, il faudra faire des essais sur le terrain », poursuit-il.

Également interrogé sur l’étude relayée cette semaine dans ces colonnes selon laquelle le taux de fuites de méthane sur les forages de gaz de schiste atteindrait 9 %, soit un pourcentage très supérieur aux estimations antérieures, le PDG de Total n’y est pas allé par quatre chemins : « Quand on veut tuer son chien, on l’accuse de la rage ». « Sur tout forage, il peut y avoir des émanations de gaz et les industriels le savent […] Dire que le gaz de schiste est plus polluant que le charbon reviendrait à dire que les Américains, qui ont réduit leurs rejets de gaz à effet de serre de 3 %, grâce à la substitution du charbon par le gaz, sont des menteurs », renchérit-il.

« Du pétrole sur le Groenland, ce serait un désastre », avait déclaré M. de Margerie en septembre dernier. Quatre mois plus tard, rien n’indique qu’il a changé d’avis. C’est déjà ça.

Crédits photos : Wikimedia Commons / Jean-Baptiste Labrune - Ruhrfisch
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