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Le coût économique des catastrophes naturelles de 2011 est déjà considérable

Le coût économique des catastrophes naturelles de 2011 est déjà considérable
L’année 2011 a d’ores et déjà battu un triste record, celui des pertes économiques générées par les catastrophes naturelles

188,4 milliards d’euros. C’est selon un rapport publié hier par le réassureur allemand Munich RE ce qu’ont coûté les catastrophes naturelles dans le monde depuis le début de l’année. 2011 bat ainsi tous les records en termes de pertes économiques imputées à ces épisodes, dépassant déjà celui établi en 2005 (d’environ 156,4 milliards d’euros) alors que le second semestre vient seulement de débuter…

D’ordinaire, la première moitié d’une année n’est pourtant pas la plus coûteuse, les catastrophes naturelles étant plus dévastatrices lors de la seconde en raison des ouragans au nord de l’Atlantique et des typhons au nord-ouest du Pacifique. Le nombre total de catastrophes naturelles enregistrées ces six derniers mois est en outre inférieur à la moyenne de ces dix dernières années (355 contre 390 en moyenne sur la même période).

Ce qui a changé la donne, ce sont le séisme et le tsunami qui ont frappé le Japon le 11 mars dernier et ont généré à eux seuls plus  de 150 milliards d’euros de pertes économiques (!) A eux deux ils sont désormais le désastre naturel le plus coûteux de l’histoire, battant largement le record de 89 milliards d’euros que détenait l’ouragan Katrina depuis 2005.

Les pertes économiques totales enregistrées depuis janvier sont du coup cinq fois supérieures à la moyenne des dix dernières années sur cette même période.

les catastrophes naturelles en forte hausse en 2011

Une accumulation de catastrophes naturelles, de plus en plus intenses

Autre malchanceuse : la Nouvelle-Zélande, victimes de graves tremblements de terre en février et en juin dernier dont les dégâts ont été estimés à 14,1 milliards d’euros (dont la moitié était des pertes assurées).

Aux Etats-Unis, une invraisemblable série de tornades s’est abattue sur le Sud et le Midwest et les plus importantes, en avril et mai, ont à elles seules coûté environ 15,6 milliards d’euros dont 7 milliards au secteur des assurances. Un chiffre énorme mais qui ne représente pas les pertes totales générées par les quelque 1 600 tornades qui se sont abattues sur l’Oncle Sam depuis le début de l’année. Il s’agit là aussi d’un record…

L’Australie, elle, a été le théâtre de graves inondations en décembre et janvier, lesquelles auraient provoqué 5 milliards d’euros de pertes – dont 1,8 milliard en pertes assurées – et ont précédé le passage du cyclone Yasi. Celui-ci a ravagé une partie de l’Etat du Queensland et a été le plus meurtrier dans le pays depuis cent ans, avec des vents soufflant à plus de 280 km/h. Et s’il n’a coûté « qu’ » 1,4 milliard d’euros à l’Etat, dont la moitié en pertes assurées, c’est que par chance les grandes villes de Cairns et Townsville ont été largement épargnées…

Face à ces résultats, qui ne révèlent par ailleurs qu’une partie de l’iceberg, il devient de plus en plus difficile de nier l’impact dévastateur du changement climatique. Même si la plupart des catastrophes naturelles précitées seraient dues au phénomène naturel « La Nina », la nette augmentation en fréquence et en intensité de ces évènements n’est en tout cas guère rassurante.

Crédits photos : fotopedia – haithanh / yourbdnews.com - TEDITOR
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