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L’agriculture urbaine, un phénomène en pleine expansion

Le gouvernement français a publié le 28 juin 2016 sa feuille de route environnementale pour 2016. Elle contient pas moins de 12 mesures, dont une qui concerne la création de zones agricoles protégées et le développement de projets alimentaires territoriaux. Il est ici clairement question de favoriser le développement de l’agriculture urbaine. De Paris à Bordeaux en passant par Strasbourg, l’agriculture urbaine a le vent en poupe. Est-ce un véritable phénomène de société ou plutôt une mode éphémère?

L’Ile-de-France est sans conteste la région la plus urbanisée de France. Mais cette caractéristique n’empêche pas ses habitants de se passionner pour l’agriculture en milieu urbain. Au cours de ces dernières années, ce ne sont pas moins de 1.000 jardins partagés qui se sont déployés sur plus de 900 hectares. Sans oublier les 3.000 hectares dont disposent les maraîchers de la région.

Les journalistes de l’AFP ont rencontré Maria-Louisa George à Muraux, dans la banlieue-est de Paris. Cette sexagénaire cultive depuis 2011 ses fleurs et ses légumes, juste au pied de la cité Renault, dans un parking réhabilité en jardin communautaire.

“Bien sûr que c’est pour manger! Nous sommes dix familles sur ce jardin. C’est pour le plaisir, mais aussi pour se nourrir, nous récoltons beaucoup de légumes”, explique-t-elle. Si l’agriculture urbaine a une fonction alimentaire, elle a également une fonction sociale. “J’habite la cité depuis 43 ans et c’est la première fois qu’on me propose une initiative comme ça. Jamais personne n’a volé nos légumes, on respecte notre jardin. Avant, personne ne me disait jamais bonjour, maintenant même les jeunes du quartier me saluent”.

L’association Pades (Programme autoproduction et développement social) démontre cependant qu’il existe des disparités énormes entre les différentes villes où se pratiquent l’agriculture urbaine. À Strasbourg, on compte en moyenne 6 mètres carrés de jardins partagés par habitant. À Bordeaux, en revanche, cette moyenne ne s’élève qu’à 0,17 mètres carrés.

“Il y a un problème de justice dans la distribution de ces équipements collectifs qui pénalise les plus fragiles”, estime Daniel Cérézuelle, responsable scientifique chez Pades. Les questions d’agriculture urbaine “ne sont pas du tout intégrées dans les politiques d’urbanisme, et devraient l’être”, précise Jean-Noël Consalès, enseignant-chercheur à Aix Marseille en urbanisme et paysage.

Les bienfaits de l’agriculture urbaine sont donc désormais reconnus. Il semble cependant important de ne pas se focaliser uniquement sur cette volonté de verdir l’immobilier urbain de manière totalement déconnectée de tout impératif d’aménagement global d’un territoire. “Ces jardins intégrés sur plans n’ont la plupart du temps pour objet que de faire accepter au voisinage des projets immobiliers très denses. Et au final ces installations ont un coût d’entretien très élevé”, averti François Mancebo, chercheur à Reims.

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