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La chaleur des volcans islandais pourrait fournir une partie de l’électricité de la Grande-Bretagne

La chaleur des volcans islandais pourrait fournir une partie de l'électricité de la  Grande-Bretagne

Le secrétaire d’État britannique à l’Énergie rencontrera en mai son homologue islandais. Les discussions porteront sur la construction de câbles sous-marins pour récupérer l’électricité produite grâce au potentiel géothermique scandinave. En proie à des doutes sur son avenir énergétique, la Grande-Bretagne compte beaucoup sur ce projet, mais aussi sur la création d’un réseau énergétique européen.

Des câbles entre l’Islande et la Grande-Bretagne pour transporter de l’électricité. L’idée peut paraître saugrenue, mais elle est très sérieuse. Le secrétaire d’État à l’Énergie britannique Charles Hendry se rendra en effet le mois prochain en Islande pour signer un partenariat énergétique avec la « terre de glace », qui est aussi de feu puisque l’île est située sur une faille géologique. Elle compte parmi les endroits les plus actifs de la planète au niveau volcanique et abrite quelque 200 cratères, dont plus d’une trentaine sont entrés en activité ces deux derniers siècles.

Eu égard à l’épuisement des ressources pétrolières et charbonnières ainsi qu’à la défiance croissante face au nucléaire, de nouvelles solutions doivent être dégagées pour satisfaire les besoins énergétiques de la population. La géothermie à grande échelle en est une. Cité par nos confrères de l’AFP, Charles Hendry a rappelé que « le XXIe siècle est sans aucun doute le moment d’explorer de nouvelles méthodes d’exploitation d’énergie ».

Il justifie ce choix insolite par la dépendance de son pays aux ressources des Etats voisins et par le fait que la facture énergétique des Britanniques s’en trouverait allégée.

Des câbles relient déjà la Grande-Bretagne à la France et aux Pays-Bas. Celui reliant l’Islande à la Grande-Bretagne serait quant à lui long de 1 000 à 1 500 kilomètres, soit l’un des plus longs du monde. Le défi est donc de taille, sachant que chaque kilomètre de câble est aussi constitué de 800 kilos de cuivre.

D’autres projets sont aussi envisagés, à savoir un câble reliant la Grande-Bretagne à l’Espagne et deux autres reliant l’île à la France. Une autre ligne ouvrira dès cet automne entre le Pays de Galles et l’Irlande. De même, une construction analogue reliant la Grande-Bretagne à la Norvège a déjà débuté. Elle devrait entrer en service en 2019.

Les Britanniques veulent sceller rapidement l’accord avec les Islandais. Les ressources sont en effet coûteuses et l’Allemagne est elle aussi sur les rangs…

Crédits photos : flickr – Dingilingi/Eggert Norðdahl
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