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Le charbon : boudé par les uns, convoité par les autres

Le charbon : boudé par les uns, convoité par les autres
Alors que sa consommation énergétique a doublé en dix ans, la Chine continue d'exploiter le charbon de manière intensive. Tout en se montrant très performante dans le domaine des énergies propres...

Un rapport de l’institut de recherche environnementale américain Worldwatch a récemment révélé que la demande mondiale en charbon était entrée dans une phase de stagnation voire de récession dans certains pays.

C’est grâce aux politiques gouvernementales axées sur des préoccupations écologiques et notamment sur le développement des énergies renouvelables ainsi qu’à la baisse du prix du gaz naturel, le tout sur fond de crise économique mondiale, que l’on a assisté à une baisse de 0,5% de la consommation de charbon l’an passé.

Chaque année depuis près d’une décennie, celle-ci augmentait de 4,3% en moyenne, aussi la diminution observée l’an passé est-elle un signe encourageant. Elle ne doit cependant pas faire oublier que si la tendance à la baisse est valable pour les pays d’Europe, d’Amérique du Nord ou encore pour le Japon – où la consommation aurait même diminué de 10% – il n’en va pas de même dans les pays en plein boom économique comme l’Inde ou la Chine.

Paradoxale Chine

L’Empire du Milieu, premier émetteur de gaz à effet de serre (GES) de la planète, consomme à lui seul 46,9% du charbon extrait à l’échelle mondiale et a ainsi vu le pourcentage d’utilisation du minerai augmenter de 9,6% en 2009. Il est désormais contraint d’en importer dans d’inquiétantes proportions.

Il faut néanmoins souligner que dans le même temps la Chine consent des efforts importants pour améliorer ses performances en matière d’énergies propres. En avril dernier, la croissance du secteur des énergies renouvelables a même été supérieure à celle du charbon. Selon les auteurs du rapport celles-ci pourraient en outre représenter de 16 à 20% du total de l’énergie consommée par le pays d’ici 2020. « La Chine est en train de réussir là où les Etats-Unis sont en train d’échouer, à savoir mettre en place des politiques ambitieuses et investir durablement de manière à stimuler la croissance des énergies propres. Si elle maintient ce cap, la Chine pourrait devenir le leader mondial dans ce secteur en moins de deux ans », a même affirmé Christopher Flavin, président de Worldwatch.

La bonne volonté de la Chine s’est par ailleurs traduite par la signature d’un accord de coopération avec la France pour lutter contre l’augmentation des températures, et la multiplication des emplois verts dans le pays constitue elle aussi un témoignage probant du verdissement entrepris par Pékin.

A quelques jours du début du somment de Cancún, les faits et gestes de Hu Jintao sont plus que jamais scrutés à la loupe. Entre impérialisme économique et tentatives de redorer son blason écologique, difficile de savoir sur quel pied danser. La Chine provoque en tout cas un déchaînement de passions (et de craintes) qui a au moins le mérite de mettre le réchauffement climatique et les moyens de lutter contre sur le devant de la scène internationale.

Crédit photo : Wikimedia commons – Stephen Codrington / Dennis
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