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Vers une meilleure protection des espèces menacées vivant sur des îles

Des scientifiques ont mis au point une banque de données relative à la biodiversité insulaire. L’objectif de cette démarche est d’identifier les vertébrés menacés d’extinction vivant sur des îles afin de renforcer les mesures qui permettront d’assurer leur survie. Selon les auteurs de cette étude, publiée dans les colonnes de la revue Science Advances, les régions insulaires sont en effet des espaces où il est plus facile de réguler les espèces invasives qui menacent les animaux en voie de disparition.

Le premier travail des chercheurs à l’origine de cette étude a été d’identifier et de localiser les 1.189 espèces terrestres d’amphibiens, reptiles, oiseaux et mammifères inscrits sur la liste rouge de l’Union internationale pour la conservation de la nature (UICN).

C’est ainsi qu’il a été remarqué que la moitié des vertébrés aujourd’hui menacés d’extinction vivent sur quelques 1.288 îles. Ces données permettent donc de mettre en avant le rôle essentiel de l’homme dans la survie de ces espèces : l’arrivée des humains sur ces espaces insulaires coïncident bien souvent avec la disparition de certaines espèces, comme le Moqueur de Floreana, un oiseau des Iles Galápagos disparu quelques décennies après l’arrivée des hommes.

Si les îles ne représentent que 5,3% des terres émergées du globe, elles ont abrité 61% des toutes les espèces éteintes connues depuis 1500. On estime que l’introduction des chats sauvages et des rongeurs par l’homme sur ces îles a été un véritable fléau au cours des derniers siècles : ils seraient responsables de l’extinction de plus de 44% des oiseaux, petits mammifères et reptiles aujourd’hui disparus.

Désormais conscient du problème, l’homme se doit de jouer le bon rôle dans ce drame. Il est en effet de notre devoir d’empêcher l’arrivée et de limiter la prolifération de nuisibles et d’éliminer les espèces invasives afin de favoriser la résurgence des espèces autochtones menacées.

“Cette nouvelle banque de données sur la biodiversité insulaire permettra de mieux cibler et de nettement améliorer les efforts de conservation dont a besoin notre planète”, explique Dena Spatz, biologiste de l’ONG Island Conservation et principale auteure de cette étude.

Cette étude met en avant les bons résultats obtenus par les scientifiques de l’île d’Anacapa, au large de la Californie : l’éradication des rats a en effet permis de favoriser la reconstitution des populations de Guillemot de Scripps.

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