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Repenser l’espace urbain pour diminuer l’empreinte carbone des villes

Repenser l’espace urbain pour diminuer l’empreinte carbone des villes
Les émissions de CO2 devraient atteindre les 36,5 milliards de tonnes d’ici 2030

Un rapport des Nations-Unies (ONU) récemment publié alerte sur l’augmentation de l’empreinte carbone urbaine qui devrait atteindre des records d’ici quelques dizaines d’années. Reconcevoir nos villes sous l’égide du développement durable serait alors nécessaire.

La Terre devrait compter entre 9 et 10 milliards d’individus en 2050 selon les estimations. Et la plupart des habitants de la planète se concentrera dans les villes. Afin de prévenir des risques de cette augmentation de l’urbanisation, l’ONU a récemment publié un rapport dont les points principaux ont été présentés lors de la conférence internationale Planet Under Pressure qui s’est déroulée à Londres (Royaume-Uni) du 26 au 29 mars.

« Les émissions de CO2 (dioxyde de carbone) des zones urbaines équivalent à environ 15 milliards de tonnes en 1990 et 25 milliards de tonnes en 2010. Ces chiffres devraient atteindre les 36,5 milliards de tonnes d’ici 2030 si l’on ne procède à aucun changement », révèle le rapport cité par CORDIS, service d’information de la Commission européenne, qui précise que plus de deux tiers des émissions de CO2 sont liées aux besoins des villes. D’après l’ONU, cette empreinte urbaine devrait se développer sur 1,2 million de kilomètres carrés soit la taille de la France, de l’Allemagne et de l’Espagne réunies.

L’ONU estime que les habitants des zones rurales (un milliard de personnes d’après les prévisions) vont déménager vers les villes, déjà soumises à une très forte pression. Les choix que nous prenons en matière d’urbanisation joueraient donc un rôle clé dans la durabilité de l’environnement. « Il faut reconcevoir l’organisation des villes rapidement pour la durabilité globale. Les régions urbaines émergentes ont un avantage, du fait qu’elles arrivent tard sur la scène, en terme de connaissances, de façon de penser et d’une technologie leur permettant de mieux gérer des aspects fondamentaux tels que les déchets et les transports », a affirmé le Dr Shobhakar Dhakal du Global Carbon Project au Japon, cité par CORDIS.

Avant d’ajouter qu’il faudrait se concentrer sur « l’amélioration de la qualité de l’urbanisation, de l’espace urbain, de l’infrastructure et sur les choix énergétiques et l’efficacité. » De nombreuses grandes villes européennes ont déjà fait un pas en direction d’un espace urbain plus durable, favorisant l’éco-mobilité, ou encore en installant des jardins, en multipliant les plantations et en développant les énergies renouvelables. Ce rapport est la preuve qu’elles sont sur la bonne voie mais doivent constamment poursuivre les efforts afin que les villes de demain soient, on l’espère, plus respirables.

Crédits photos : flickr - jubarrier / Keith Bacongco
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