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Londres : un ancien bunker reconverti en potager sous-terrain

Le projet “Growing Underground“, c’est un peu l’histoire d’un bunker devenu potager. En 2015, inspirés par le développement mondial de l’agriculture verticale, Steven Dring et Richard Ballard se lance dans un projet original : reconvertir un ancien abri anti-aérien de la Seconde Guerre mondiale en jardin sous-terrain. Deux ans plus tard, le bunker est devenu une ferme unique en son genre : permet de faire pousser une grande variété de légumes et d’herbes aromatiques… par 33 mètres de profondeur.

L’abri en question, qui servait à l’époque à protéger jusqu’à 8.000 civils des bombardements allemands, est aujourd’hui bondé de plateaux et d’étagères sur lesquels poussent roquettes, petits pois, brocolis, moutarde brune ou encore coriandre. Aux yeux de ses concepteurs, l’utilité de ce verger sous-terrain d’un nouveau genre est tout aussi importante qu’à l’époque du bunker.

“Il faut créer de nouveaux espaces cultivables pour pouvoir faire face à l’augmentation de la démographie mondiale”, estime en effet Steven Dring. L’agriculture verticale urbaine est également devenue une alternative à l’agriculture intensive et donc un outil permettant de lutter contre le réchauffement climatique.

Situé dans le quartier de Clapham, à Londres, ce potager sous-terrain fonctionne selon la technique de l’hydroponie. Cette méthode consiste à faire reposer les cultures sur des substrats neutres et inertes tels que du sable, de la pouzzolane ou des billes en argile. Ces substrats sont ensuite régulièrement irrigués avec des solutions apportant sels minéraux et nutriments aux plantes cultivées. Des lampes à diode électroluminescente, enroulées autour des cultures, permettent enfin de fournir la lumière nécessaire à la croissance des plantes.

“Nous cultivons en majorité de la microverdure (…). Nous ne laissons les cultures croître qu’un peu, jusqu’à ce qu’apparaissent les premières feuilles. C’est comme cela que nous obtenons des microverdures qui ont beaucoup de goût”, explique M. Dring. Les pousses sont ensuite emballées et livrées aux clients (supermarché et restaurants).

L’agriculture verticale urbaine est un mode de production qui présente de nombreux avantages. Créateur d’emploi, ce mode d’agriculture contribue à baisser la pollution et à économiser les ressources hydriques (grâce à l’utilisation de l’eau en système fermé).

Autre gros avantage : fini les déconvenues liées aux aléas de la météo. “L’hiver, dans une serre, il faudra 25 jours pour faire pousser de la moutarde brune alors qu’ici, il nous en faut 10″, affirme Steven Dring.

Growing Underground est également un projet qui contribue à améliorer les modes de production agricole. Steven Dring et Richard Ballard communiquent l’ensemble des données qu’ils collectent dans leur ferme sous-terraine à l’université de Cambridge. Cette dernière va ainsi pouvoir créer de nouveaux modèles et déterminer la température idéale pour chaque aliment. Et ainsi optimiser la production.

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