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Les sites du patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO menacés par l’homme

L’Organisation des Nations unies pour l’éducation, la science et la culture (UNESCO) est une institution spécialisée de l’ONU dont la mission est de contribuer au maintien de la paix en favorisant la collaboration entre les nations par le biais de la science, de la culture et de l’éducation. Créée au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, l’UNESCO a dressé une liste des “biens culturels et naturels” qui présentent un “intérêt exceptionnel pour l’héritage commun de l’humanité”. Baptisée “patrimoine mondial de l’humanité”, cette liste vise à faire connaitre et à protéger les sites d’exception aux quatre coins du monde. Malheureusement, cette mission de protection est loin d’être une tâche aisée.

Selon un rapport publié mardi 18 avril par le Fond Mondial pour la Nature (WWF), près de la moitié des sites naturels inscrits au patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO sont aujourd’hui menacés par l’irresponsabilité de l’être humain. Selon les chiffres avancés par cette ONG de protection de l’environnement 45% des 200 sites naturels du patrimoine mondial sont victimes de braconnage, de trafic ou d’exploitation forestière illégale.

“Les espèces classées à la CITES [Convention sur le commerce international des espèces de faune et de flore sauvages menacées d'extinction, ndlr] sont victimes de prélèvement illégal dans 45% des sites naturels inscrits au Patrimoine mondial”, déplorent les auteurs de cette étude.

Le braconnage des espèces menacées est un véritable fléau : il s’agirait d’une pratique courante dans 43 sites inscrits au patrimoine mondial. Au premier rang des victimes se trouvent des animaux comme le tigre sauvage, les éléphants ou les rhinocéros dont les sites de l’UNESCO constituent un des seuls habitats viables pour leur survie. Même phénomène en ce qui concerne les espèces animales marines : la pêche illégale est pratiquée dans 18 des 39 sites marins recensés par l’UNESCO.

Du côté de l’exploitation forestière illégale, elle est signalée dans 26 sites naturels classés au patrimoine mondial. Des espèces végétales fragiles, tels que le bois de rose et l’ébène, sont fortement recherchées par les criminels.

La faune et la flore ne sont pas les seules victimes du braconnage et de l’exploitation forestière illégale : les économies locales en pâtissent également. Les auteurs du rapport estiment en effet que ces pratiques font mauvaises presse aux pays concernés et diminuent leur attractivité touristique. Chaque année, le braconnage d’éléphant priverait par exemple le continent africain de quelques 25 millions de dollars de recettes touristiques.

Le rapport estime entre 30 et 100 milliards de dollars les revenus générés par le commerce illégal de bois d’œuvre. Il serait même responsable à lui seul de 90% de la déforestation qui prend place dans les grands pays tropicaux.

Moins lucratif, le commerce illégal d’espèces sauvages est une pratique qui ne génèrerait cependant pas moins de 15 et 20 milliards de dollars. Cette activité se place ainsi en quatrième position des commerces illicites après la drogue, la contrefaçon et le trafic d’êtres humains. Le braconnage serait pratiqué par les populations locales mais également les criminels étrangers.

“Il y a tout de même lieu de distinguer le phénomène pratiqué à petite échelle par les riverains pour s’approvisionner en viande de brousse, de celui exercé à grande envergure par les réseaux criminels”, précise le rapport.

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