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Les poissons des glaces menacés par le réchauffement climatique

Les poissons des glaces menacés par le réchauffement climatique

Le poisson des glaces, également appelé « poisson-antarctique », a su s’adapter aux conditions glaciales des mers australes. Mais il est aujourd’hui menacé par le réchauffement climatique.

Il y a des millions d’années, un petit poisson a réussi un exploit incroyable : s’adapter aux eaux polaires de l’Antarctique. Une étude de l’Université de Yale a permis à des chercheurs de démontrer que les protéines antigel présentes dans le sang de cetteespèce sont apparues il y a 22 à 42 millions d’années. Pendant cette période, la Terre a connu une vague de refroidissement global (il y a 35 millions d’années) et une centaine d’espèces de poissons des glaces s’est alors adaptée aux nouvelles conditions de vie. La richesse et la diversité des espèces s’est étendue au cours du Miocène supérieur et pendant le Pliocène, une ère marquée par l’apparition des conditions polaires et la progression de la glace dans l’océan austral.

Le poisson-antarctique s’est cependant si bien adapté au froid qu’il est aujourd’hui menacé par la hausse des températures des mers et océans. L’océan austral est en effet l’une des régions qui souffrent le plus de l’augmentation du thermomètre mondial.« Une croissance de 2 degrés de la température de l’eau aura probablement un impact dévastateur sur cette lignée de poissons de l’Antarctique », a alerté Thomas Near, professeur agrégé en écologie et biologie évolutive, et auteur principal de l’étude, cité par le site EurekAlert! « Compte tenu de leur adaptation aux températures polaires et de leur incapacité à s’acclimater à des températures plus chaudes, le changement climatique pourrait détruire la lignée la plus intéressante de poissons, dont l’histoire est unique », a-t-il ajouté.

Et ce n’est malheureusement pas tout : ces poissons menacés, et c’est toute la chaîne alimentaire de l’Antarctique qui est en danger. Les poissons des glaces sont ainsi très répandus et constituent la nourriture principale de nombreux prédateurs comme les pingouins, les phoques ou encore certaines baleines. Les équilibres des chaînes alimentaires et des écosystèmes sont fragiles. Le cas des poissons des glaces n’en est qu’une malheureuse nouvelle illustration…

Crédits photos: flickr - RAYANDBEE / Yale University
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  • jipebe29

    Ce qui est très étonnant, c’est que, comme il n’y a plus de réchauffement climatique depuis 13 ans et que les océans sont en léger refroidissement depuis 2003, je ne vois pas pour quelle raison ces poissons seraient menacés…. et sûrement pas par les prévisions des modèles numériques du GIEC, qui n’ont aucune action sur le monde réel. Mais, bien sûr, le financement de nombre d’études dépend des mots magiques « réchauffement climatique (anthropique…) »….

  • http://www.scoop.it/t/nature-en-vie/p/1238053644/les-poissons-des-glaces-menaces-par-le-rechauffement-climatique-zegreenweb Les poissons des glaces menacés par le réchauffement climatique – zegreenweb | Nature en vie | Scoop.it

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  • chria

    Tu frise le grand ridicule, jipebe, en faisant exprès d’oublier que la température de l’air a augmenté sur le long terme et que c’est cela qui joue, pas les 13 dernières années. 
    Mais bien sûr c’est sûrement un complot entre les poissons et les réchauffistes…

  • chria

    Et tu ferais mieux d’aller exposer ta grande science à ce chercheur Thomas Near, au lieu de poster tes commentaires sur tous les sites de la toile que personne ne lis sauf moi. Cela sera plus constructif dans ta grande quête de l’anti-réchauffisme. 

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