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Les petites bêtes participent à la sauvegarde des écosystèmes

Les petites bêtes participent à la sauvegarde des écosystèmes
Les carabes et les isopodes terrestres sont d’excellents indicateurs de la biodiversité

Le CIVAM (Centre d’initiatives pour valoriser l’agriculture et le milieu rural) du Poitou-Charentes préconise la mise en place de zones refuges (haies, bosquets, bandes enherbées et prairies) afin de préserver la « biodiversité utile ». Ces ZER (zones écologiques réservoirs) sont nécessaires pour réduire la part des intrants utilisés par les agriculteurs pour leurs cultures.

Cette étude, toujours en cours, a été lancée dans une quinzaine d’exploitations agricoles de la région. L’objectif du Centre est de découvrir quelles sont les bonnes méthodes à adopter pour entretenir voire renforcer la biodiversité utile, qui désigne des animaux ou des végétaux jouant un rôle fonctionnel vis-à-vis de l’agriculture en assurant de nombreux services écologiques et est à ce titre perçue comme un « véritable levier agronomique ». Animateur du CIVAM local, Mathieu Mallet voit dans cette initiative que certains qualifient de nouveau concept green une notion scientifique incontournable.

Les cultures sont très souvent envahies par des pucerons, des mauvaises herbes et tous les moyens sont bons pour faire face à ces destructions parfois fatales pour les récoltes. De fait certains n’hésitent pas à utiliser la manière forte (et mauvaise), à savoir les pesticides, mauvais pour la santé et pour l’environnement. D’autres méthodes existent pourtant, notamment le recours à une plante capable de combattre les espèces végétales ou animales invasives. Un parti-pris plus « écolo » qui est aussi celui du Centre, lequel veut cependant pousser plus loin la méthode douce.

Une initiative à soutenir

Les carabes et les isopodes terrestres ont été sélectionnés par l’organisme en tant qu’espèces « bio-indicatrices ». Ces deux petites bêtes, et surtout les carabes, sont en effet d’excellents auxiliaires de cultures. Prédatrices de mollusques (limaces, escargots) et d’insectes tels que les pucerons ou les larves de taupins, elles sont en fait doublement intéressantes. Les isopodes terrestres, eux, sont même détrivores, accélérant le processus de décomposition et contribuant ainsi au retour des nutriments dans le sol. Dans le cadre de l’expérience du CIVAM, qui a aussi pu compter sur le renfort d’étudiants en biologie de l’Université de Poitiers (Vienne), Damien Deschamps a parcouru les exploitations testées et a enterré entre vingt et cinquante pots pièges par parcelle. Le résultat ne s’est pas fait attendre longtemps puisque trois jours plus tard les pots étaient relevés. L’efficacité des ces petites bêtes n’est donc plus à démontrer !

Un compte-rendu précis de cette opération sera bientôt disponible sur le site www.inpactpc.org. En attendant les résultats officiels, le CIVAM assure déjà que le nombre de carabes est directement lié à l’implantation de ZER, lieux propices à leur reproduction et à leur habitat naturel. La taille de la parcelle a elle aussi une incidence puisque plus elle est petite, plus elle leur est favorable. Les agriculteurs, eux, peuvent d’ores et déjà apprendre à connaître ces petites bêtes utiles à l’aide d’un livret édité par le centre.

Pour pouvoir poursuivre cette étude au printemps prochain, le CIVAM du Poitou-Charentes, qui manque de financements, a lancé un appel. Au vu des résultats déjà observés il serait regrettable qu’elle ne puisse pas aller au bout.

Crédits photos : Wikimedia commons - Didier Descouens/ Alvesgaspar
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