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Les apiculteurs français tirent la sonnette d’alarme

Les apiculteurs ont décidé de se mobiliser afin d’attirer l’attention de l’opinion publique sur le déclin dramatique des abeilles. Les professionnels français ont en effet manifesté dans plusieurs villes hexagonales ce jeudi 7 juin afin de demander un environnement plus favorable aux pollinisatrices et de réclamer des aides exceptionnelles au gouvernement. Cette opération sera complétée du 14 au 16 juin par trois jours de sensibilisation baptisés Apidays, pendant lesquels les apiculteurs de France vont expliquer le rôle majeur des abeilles dans le processus de pollinisation.

“Il faut sauver l’apiculture nationale et faire cesser l’hécatombe”, estime François Le Duval, un jeune apiculteur breton venu manifester sur l’esplanade des Invalides à Paris. “Il faut arrêter de tergiverser, car aujourd’hui, ça a pris de telles proportions que dans certaines régions l’apiculture n’est plus viable”, confirme aux journalistes de l’AFP Gilles Lanio, président de l’Union nationale de l’apiculture française(Unaf).

Voilà désormais plusieurs années que les apiculteurs français subissent d’importantes pertes : en moyenne, 30% de leurs cheptels périssent durant la période hivernale. Certains estiment même qu’un cap supplémentaire vient d’être franchi avec des taux de mortalité qui ont atteint 40, 50 voire 80% au cours de l’hiver 2018.

“J’avais six ruches il y a encore deux ans, l’an dernier je n’en avais plus que deux et aujourd’hui zéro”, explique Julien, apiculteur dans la Drôme, qui déplore “la mort en silence des colonies pendant l’hiver”.

“On est la seule profession agricole à ne pas recevoir d’aides”, déplore Olivier Fernandez, président du syndicat des apiculteurs Midi-Pyrénées. Rien d’étonnant donc à ce que le nombre d’apiculteurs soit en chute libre depuis quelques années : ils étaient 85.000 à pratiquer cette activité en 1995, mais ne sont plus que 70.000 aujourd’hui. Sur cette même période la production de miel a été divisée par trois (pour atteindre 10.000 tonnes annuelle).

L’introduction des insecticides à base de néonicotinoïdes dans les processus agricoles dans les années 90 a été un coup dur pour les populations d’abeilles. Ce produit chimique s’attaque en effet au système nerveux des insectes pollinisateurs, qui se retrouvent désorientés, affaiblis et finissent par périr. Selon l’Onu, ce ne sont aujourd’hui pas moins de 40% des pollinisateurs invertébrés (abeilles mais également papillons) qui sont menacés d’extinction à l’échelle mondiale.

Pourtant le rôle des insectes pollinisateurs, dont les abeilles, est essentiel dans l’agriculture et la sécurité alimentaire. Les abeilles jouent notamment un rôle majeur dans la production des fruits, des légumes et des protéagineux (tournesol, colza…).

“84% des espèces cultivées en Europe dépendent directement des pollinisateurs et plus particulièrement des abeilles et 75% des cultures dépendent de l’activité des abeilles”, estime l’Union nationale de l’apiculture française (Unaf).

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