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Le Marsouin du Pacifique, mammifère marin le plus menacé au monde

La population du Marsouin du Pacifique, également connu sous le nom de “vaquita marina”, est en train de décliner chaque année un peu plus. À tel point que la communauté scientifique estime la disparition de ce cétacé comme “imminente” : selon une étude menée en novembre dernier, il n’en resterait plus qu’une trentaine d’individus.

Avec une taille adulte de 1,5 mètre de long en moyenne, le Marsouin du Pacifique est le plus petit cétacé du monde. Espèce endémique autrefois répandue dans le Nord du golfe de Californie, mer de l’océan Pacifique qui sépare la péninsule de Basse-Californie du Mexique continental, il est aujourd’hui considéré comme un des animaux les plus vulnérables et comme le mammifère marin le plus menacé au monde.

Selon une analyse acoustique des eaux du golfe de Californie réalisée en novembre dernier, la population de Marsouin du Pacifique serait en effet au bord de l’extinction : selon un recensement basé sur les bruits de cliquetis qu’émettent ces cétacés pour communiquer, il ne resterait aujourd’hui plus qu’une trentaine de spécimens.

Selon la précédente étude de ce genre, réalisée entre septembre et décembre 2015, l’espèce comptait 60 individus dans ces mêmes eaux du golfe de Californie. Ils étaient une centaine en 2014, plus de 200 en 2012. Il y a 10 ans, les recherches scientifiques faisaient état de 600 individus.

“La situation, qui était déjà désespérée, s’est encore aggravée malgré les efforts de conservation mis en place. Au rythme actuel, la vaquita aura probablement disparu d’ici 2022, à moins que l’interdiction des filets soit maintenue et respectée”, estime un rapport du Comité International pour la Récupération de la Vaquita (CIRVA).

Discret et rarement visible, le Marsouin du Pacifique est une des victimes collatérales du braconnage qui sévit dans les eaux du Pacifique. Le déclin impressionnant des populations de vaquira est en effet à mettre sur le compte des filets dérivants utilisés par les contrebandiers de totoaba, un poisson prisé pour sa vessie natatoire commercialisée en Asie.

En 2015, le Président mexicain Enrique Pena Nieto a mobilisé la marine pour tenter de stopper cette pêche illégale. Il a notamment décidé d’étendre la surface des zones protégées du Golfe de Californie et interdit l’utilisation de filets dérivants sur 13.000 kilomètres carrés pendant 2 ans. Mais face à ce business hautement lucratif (une vessie de totoaba se vend entre 10.000 et 20.000 dollars pièce en Asie), rien n’arrive à endiguer le phénomène.

L’ultime recours envisagé par les scientifiques? Un plan de capture de plusieurs spécimens afin de les réintroduire dans une zone fermée du golfe dans laquelle ils pourront se reproduire à l’abri des filets. Certains défenseurs de l’environnement sont fermement opposés à cette mesure, craignant que certains Marsouins ne succombent pendant l’opération.

“La pêche illégale se poursuit et si nous ne les capturons pas, ils mourront de toute façon”, estime Lorenzo Rojas-Bracho, membre du CIRVA.

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