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L’Angleterre, l’autre royaume d’Eole

L'Angleterre, l'autre royaume d'Eole
Une partie du pharaonique projet du parc éolien offshore London Array devrait être achevée peu avant l'ouverture des prochains Jeux Olympiques d'été

Premier potentiel européen en matière d’éolien marin, la Grande-Bretagne a manifestement l’intention de l’exploiter au maximum et ainsi de suivre l’exemple danois.

Conscientes des enjeux environnementaux et de la manne énergétique que peut représenter la prolifération de turbines dans ses eaux territoriales, sans parler de la création de nouveaux emplois « verts » et de la nécessité de réduire notablement les émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES), le précédent gouvernement britannique n’avait pas ménagé sa peine pour entériner la création de London Array, qui sera le plus grand parc éolien offshore de la planète.

En partie opérationnel avant les prochains Jeux Olympiques d’été, lesquels se tiendront à Londres en 2012, situé dans l’estuaire de la Tamise (dans le sud-est de la Grande-Bretagne), il sera investi dans le cadre de la première phase du projet par cent soixante-quinze unités fournies par l’inévitable Siemens.

À une première vague de soixante-douze turbines succèdera une deuxième de cent trois machines, étant entendu que London Array doit accueillir à terme un total de trois cent quarante et une éoliennes. Leur capacité a été estimée à un gigawatt (GW), c’est-à-dire assez pour alimenter la bagatelle de sept cent cinquante mille foyers en électricité [NDLR : Trois cent cinquante mille de plus que le parc éolien danois d'Anholt, qui devrait quant à lui être mis en service en 2013  ] (!)

L’administration Brown à la rescousse

Contrairement à ce qu’on pourrait penser a priori, il ne s’agit donc pas là d’un nouveau succès écologique majeur pour l’actuel gouvernement de coalition britannique qui, rappelons-le, n’avait pas tardé à officialiser son intention d’être le plus « vert » de l’histoire du pays. Très impliqué dans la lutte contre le dérèglement climatique, comme l’ont notamment montré sa participation à la campagne 10 : 10 et au début de l’été la mise en place d’une nouvelle application sur le logiciel Google Earth, pourfendeur de la très controversée troisième piste sur l’aéroport londonien d’Heathrowil reste maintenant à trouver une alternative pour désaturer ladite plate-forme – et désireux d’adjoindre quinze nouvelles réserves de biodiversité aux sanctuaires déjà existants, ce n’est cependant pas lui mais bien la précédente administration qui a sauvé ce projet d’une probable noyade au printemps 2009. Le départ un an plus tôt de la Royal Dutch Shell, l’un des trois actionnaires in fine découragé par la hausse vertigineuse des coûts initialement prévus, l’avait en effet rendu hautement hypothétique.

À vingt kilomètres des côtes

D’après Anders Eldrup, PDG de Dong Energy, la décision gouvernementale de doubler les subventions octroyées à l’électricité éolienne offshore a rendue rentable et a à ce titre été le salut de cette entreprise dantesque.

Dans les tuyaux depuis juin 2005, elle est à présent pilotée conjointement l’insatiable groupe danois *, l’Allemand E.ON et le groupe Masdar - qui doit achever à l’horizon 2015 la construction près de l’aéroport d’Abu Dhabi (Émirats Arabes Unis) de Masdar City, une incroyable green town artificielle à zéro émission de GES.

Le trio, qui détient respectivement 50 %, 30 % et 20 % de son capital, a été poussé par les pouvoirs publics à réinjecter deux milliards deux cents millions d’euros supplémentaires pour construire la première phase de ce « mégaparc » établi sur une gigantesque zone de deux cent trente-trois kilomètres carrés à plus de vingt kilomètres des côtes, soit a priori assez pour s’épargner l’ire des pêcheurs et de populations locales qui redouteraient la défiguration du paysage.

D’après le site Internet du projet, London Array doit par ailleurs participer à hauteur de 7 % à l’objectif national de 15,4 % d’électricité d’origine renouvelable à l’horizon 2015. Il va sans dire qu’il est d’autant plus réaliste vu l’heureux dénouement, et a contrario qu’un abandon l’aurait d’ores et déjà sérieusement compromis.

* À noter également que le géant danois et la Banque européenne d’investissement (BEI) ont signé en juin un accord portant sur un prêt de deux cent cinquante millions de livres (environ trois cent millions d’euros)
Crédit photo : Flickr - zoetnet
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