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La vie reprend doucement son cours dans certaines villes évacuées à la suite de l’accident de Fukushima

La vie reprend doucement son cours dans certaines villes évacuées à la suite de l'accident de Fukushima
Seize mille des cent mille personnes évacuées à la suite de l'accident de Fukushima seront autorisées à regagner leur domicile dans les prochaines semaines

Autrefois sans histoire, ces trois villes situées juste au bord du périmètre d’exclusion de vingt kilomètres défini par les autorités sont devenues « fantômes » à la suite de l’accident nucléaire de Fukushima. Radioactivité (très) supérieure aux normes autorisées oblige, leurs habitants ont dû les fuir, le plus souvent en n’emportant avec eux que le strict nécessaire. Treize mois plus tard, Kawauchi, Tamura et Minamisoma, qui ont été épargnées par le tremblement de terre et le tsunami du 11 mars 2011, sont en cours de repeuplement.

La totalité de la zone évacuée à la suite de la catastrophe n’a pas encore été « nettoyée » et la majorité de ses habitants n’est pas encore rentrée au bercail. Les taux de radioactivité restant par endroits trop élevés, il est par ailleurs hautement probable qu’une proportion importante d’entre eux – ils sont environ cent mille au total à avoir été contraints de s’exiler – ne puisse jamais rallier leur ancien domicile, sinon quelques heures ou quelques jours.

De nouveaux riverains ont toutefois été autorisés à revenir dans les municipalités de Kawauchi et Tamura, partiellement « rouvertes » au début du mois, et celle de Minamisoma vient de suivre. Entièrement désertées pendant plus d’un an, ces trois communes ne sont pas pour autant redevenues partout habitables. Et pour cause : le chantier herculéen de la décontamination, une entreprise pour laquelle les pouvoirs publics ont débloqué des investissements considérables, n’est pas encore achevé, aussi certaines infrastructures demeurent-elles à restaurer. De même, les niveaux de radioactivité peuvent différer selon les quartiers.

Reste que les écoles de Kawauchi sont de nouveau fréquentées. Autour de ces établissements, les taux de microsieverts ont constamment baissé, oscillant aux derniers pointages entre 0,114 et 0,16 par heure, soit d’une fois et demi à deux fois moins que la limite gouvernementale. Une cérémonie officielle a consacré la reprise des cours, épisode à la portée symbolique très forte, le 6 avril dernier. Elle a fait suite à un voyage du maire Yuko Endo à Prypiat (Ukraine), construite pour loger les travailleurs de la centrale de Tchernobyl, qui comptait près de cinquante mille habitants avant l’accident et « ville-morte » depuis plus d’un quart de siècle. S’adressant aux familles qui redoutent légitimement les radiations, et alors qu’un habitant sur cinq seulement a jusqu’ici accepté de revenir, l’édile, cité par nos confrères de 20 Minutes, les a appelées à se focaliser sur « les choses qui comptent (sic), comme l’école et le foyer ».

Seize mille des cent mille personnes évacuées pourront si elles le souhaitent regagner leur maison dans les semaines à venir. On comprendrait néanmoins sans peine que ça ne se bouscule pas au portillon.

Crédits photos : Wikimedia Commons / Kuha455405 - Douglaspperkins
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