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La biodiversité de la Réunion en danger

La biodiversité de la Réunion en danger
Menacé d’extinction, le Gecko vert de Bourbon voit son habitat dévasté par la déforestation

Les premiers résultats d’un recensement de l’UICN (Union internationale pour la conservation de la nature) font état d’une aggravation des menaces qui planent au-dessus de l’écosystème de l’île.

Les espèces animales établies à la Réunion et en sécurité sont de plus en plus rares. Après une série d’études consacrées à la métropole, le comité français de l’UICN a entrepris l’an passé un inventaire similaire en outre-mer et a donc passé au crible la biodiversité du département. Les premières conclusions de ce travail de fourmi sont particulièrement inquiétantes puisque sur les 165 espèces déjà étudiées, 36 sont actuellement considérées comme « menacées » et 14 d’entre elles ont même déjà rejoint la catégorie des animaux « en danger critique d’extinction » (NDLR : 15 sont « en danger » et 7 intègrent la catégorie dite « vulnérable »).

Oiseaux et reptiles, les deux espèces les plus vulnérables

Les oiseaux et les reptiles terrestres sont les plus exposés. « L’état des lieux fait clairement apparaître un fort taux d’extinction chez » ces deux catégories, écrivent ainsi les auteurs de l’étude, qui précisent que « près du quart des espèces d’oiseaux présentes à la Réunion sont désormais éteintes à l’échelle mondiale, soit 13 sur les 55 qui étaient présentes avant l’arrivée de l’homme ». Seulement quatre autres variétés d’oiseaux disparues de l’île continueraient aujourd’hui de voler dans le ciel d’autres régions de la planète, dont « la perruche verte des Mascareignes, qui a pu subsister sur l’île voisine de Maurice ».

Les autres animaux sont également confrontés à d’importantes menaces. Parmi les insectes, « le salamide d’Augustine, un papillon en « danger critique d’extinction », est affecté par la raréfaction du Bois d’ortie, son unique plante nourricière », a constaté l’UICN.

La Réunion aux petits soins pour sa faune

La qualité des eaux serait par ailleurs loin d’être irréprochable alors que la surpêche, l’urbanisation croissante du littoral et les aménagements de rivières ont déjà fait trépasser un tiers des poissons d’eaux douces et près de la moitié des macro-crustacés. Certaines espèces comme la baleine à bosse (classée comme « vulnérable ») et la tortue verte (classée « en danger ») apparaissent aujourd’hui fragilisées.

De nombreux projets de conservation de la faune sont néanmoins en cours d’élaboration pour éviter une aggravation de la situation. Des espaces naturels accueillent en outre déjà des aires protégées et des plages réhabilitées sont réservées à la ponte des tortues vertes. Un programme de lutte contre la prolifération des rats a également été instauré pour protéger les derniers tuit-tuit (NDLR : un petit oiseau). Au vu de l’état des lieux dressé par l’UICN ces efforts devront impérativement être intensifiés.

Crédit photo : Flickr – alexander.mussard
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