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L’Italie dit « ciao » aux sacs plastiques

L’Italie dit « ciao » aux sacs plastiques
Il aura fallu quatre ans à l’Italie pour interdire la diffusion de sacs plastiques non-biodégradables. Malgré la ténacité de l’industrie du plastique, la législation devrait changer à compter du 1er janvier prochain.

Dans les cartons des autorités depuis plusieurs semaines, leur interdiction entrera en vigueur le 1er janvier prochain.

Ils n’auront eu qu’un an de répit. Alors qu’ils auraient dû être bannis du territoire italien le 1er janvier 2010 et qu’on craignait que cette interdiction commuée en moratoire soit sans cesse différée, les sacs plastiques seront officiellement persona non grata chez nos voisins transalpins dans quelques jours. La ministre de l’Environnement Stefania Prestigiacomo a en effet refusé de prolonger le moratoire en cours au-delà du 31 décembre prochain. Ce délai avait été accordé par le gouvernement pour permettre à l’industrie du plastique d’entamer une période de transition.

Le marché du plastique riposte

« Les producteurs ont eu assez de temps pour se préparer eux-mêmes à ce changement », estime Mme Prestigiacomo. Ces mêmes producteurs dénoncent l’absence de clarté de cette mesure. Jugeant la transition abrupte, ils considèrent aussi qu’elle pourrait avoir des répercussions négatives sur la consommation, les usagers n’ayant peut-être pas eu le temps de « s’acclimater ». Et de s’interroger sur le fait que l’Italie s’engage sur cette voie alors qu’il n’y a pas encore eu de décision équivalente à l’échelle européenne. Etrange argumentation dans la mesure où, en plus de ce délai d’un an supplémentaire, l’abrogation des sacs plastiques a été proposée pour la première fois… en 2007.

Ce type de conflit d’intérêts n’est, à en juger l’actualité récente, pas propre à la péninsule italienne. La France débat ainsi depuis plusieurs semaines sur la question et après que le Sénat se soit opposé à l’instauration d’une taxe sur les sacs plastiques, une commission mixte paritaire s’est finalement prononcée la semaine dernière en faveur de cette proposition du député Charles de Courson (Nouveau Centre).

S’il ne devait y avoir qu’une seule spécificité italienne sur la question, c’est peut-être au sujet de l’emprise de ces sacs plastiques dans les habitudes de consommation des Italiens. Nos voisins utilisent en effet environ le quart de l’ensemble des sacs jetables produits dans l’Union Européenne (UE), ce qui donne au bout du compte entre 20 et 25 milliards de futurs déchets écoulés par an. Dans de nombreuses enseignes, on ne sent par ailleurs toujours pas le moindre signe de changement de mentalité.

Une lutte mondiale

La Coop, la plus importante chaîne de supermarchés en Italie et qui fonctionne sous un système coopératif, a néanmoins introduit dans ses magasins des sacs biodégradables dès 2005 et lutte activement contre la prolifération des non-biodégradables. Cette prise de conscience a permis d’empêcher la distribution de quelque 450 millions de sacs par an. La ville de Turin a également mis en place une législation locale sanctionnant d’une amende (qui passera prochainement de 25 à 250 euros) les entreprises qui ne s’inscrivent pas dans ce processus de transition.

Engagée en France et en Italie, la lutte contre les sacs plastiques n’est cependant pas une préoccupation uniquement continentale. La ville de Mexico, littéralement envahie, a ainsi voté en août 2009 une loi pour les abroger et « décourager l’utilisation du plastique, l’un des principaux résidus solides polluants ». La Californie s’est à son tour inscrite dans cette démarche, en commençant par San Francisco en 2007, et vise maintenant la disparition totale de ces sacs dans l’Etat fédéral en 2013.

« Le développement durable est fait de petits changements à notre mode de vie qui ne nous coûtent rien et peuvent sauver la planète », a résumé Mme Prestigiacomo. Elle bénéficie du précieux soutien populaire, 73% des consommateurs italiens s’étant déclarés prêts à abandonner les sacs plastiques dans un sondage paru le mois dernier. Dès lors il n’y avait plus de raisons de lâcher de nouveau du lest aux producteurs.

Crédit photo : Flickr – eflon / Edoardo Croci / SMN
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