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Inde : la difficile cohabitation entre les hommes et les animaux

Jusqu’à très récemment, la cohabitation difficile entre les espèces a tourné à l’avantage de l’homme : la pression des activités humaines (urbanisation, agriculture…) sur les habitats naturels des animaux a depuis de nombreuses années des conséquences catastrophiques pour les espèces sauvages qui peuplent notre belle planète. Mais la tendance est en train de s’inverser sur certains continents. Notamment en Inde où la pression humaine croissante sur l’habitat du tigre et de l’éléphant entraine des accidents quasiment chaque jour.

Selon les nouveaux chiffres publiés par le gouvernement indien, les éléphants et les tigres seraient responsables quotidiennement de la mort d’une personne. Il faut dire que ces deux espèces en danger de disparition côtoient de plus en plus l’homme, qui n’a de cesse d’empiéter sur leur zone naturelle de chasse et d’habitat. L’urbanisation tout azimut de l’Inde a en effet contribué à la disparition de vastes espaces forestiers, contraignant la faune sauvage à s’aventurer dans des zones occupées par les humains.

Le ministère indien de l’Environnement estime que près de 1.144 personnes auraient trouvé la mort entre avril 2014 et mai 2017 (soit 1.143 jours) à la suite d’une rencontre infortune avec un tigre ou un éléphant. “Nous sommes en train de mener une campagne de sensibilisation pour limiter le nombre de victimes”, a indiqué Siddhanta Das, directeur général des forêts, qui reconnait que l’empiétement humain sur l’habitat de ces animaux était la cause de ces décès.

Plus de 25% des victimes ont péri au Bengale occidental, un État de l’Est du pays où vivent plus de 800 éléphants ainsi que les célèbres tigres du Bengale. L’année dernière, un troupeau d’éléphants paniqués a provoqué la mort de 5 personnes avant d’être neutralisés à l’aide de flèches tranquillisantes. Plus au sud, dans l’État du Tamil Nadu, une situation similaire a entrainé la mort de 4 personnes.

Ces attaques interviennent en général dans les “corridons des éléphants” : il s’agit des passages utilisés par ces majestueux animaux depuis des siècles mais qui sont aujourd’hui investis par l’homme et ses activités.

Véritable zoo à ciel ouvert, l’Inde abrite quelques 30.000 éléphants et 2.226 tigres (la moitié de la population mondiale). Ces deux espèces sont cependant menacées. “L’abattage sauvage de la faune se poursuit en Inde. Des centaines de léopards, de tigres et d’éléphants sont tués pour leurs organes”, déplore Tito Joseph, de la Société indienne de protection de la faune sauvage.

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