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Colombie : le drame silencieux de la déforestation intensive

Situé dans l’extrême nord du continent sud-américain, la Colombie est un des pays les plus riches de la planète en matière de biodiversité. Son territoire est connu pour ses immenses forêts tropicales, la fameuse cordillère des Andes et une multitude de plantations de café. Les chercheurs estiment d’ailleurs que la Colombie abriterait près de 15% de la flore mondiale : entre 40.000 et 45.000 espèces de plantes différentes. Mais que ces chiffres ne cachent pas la triste réalité du pays : la déforestation à l’œuvre depuis de nombreuses années s’intensifie.

Selon une étude publiée le 16 juin par les autorités colombiennes, la déforestation s’est accrue de 23% en 2017 par rapport à 2016 : ce ne serait pas moins de 2.200 kilomètres carrés de forêt (soit la superficie d’un pays comme le Luxembourg) qui auraient disparu sous l’assaut des activités humaines au cours de l’année dernière.

En raison de sa richesse et de sa densité, la forêt amazonienne est bien évidemment une cible de choix : 65% des coupes ont eu lieu au cœur de cette célèbre forêt tropicale. Les chercheurs de l’Institut d’hydrologie, de météorologie et d’études environnementales (Ideam) estiment que la déforestation y a doublé en un an.

“Si dans d’autres régions (dans le centre et sur la côte Pacifique) nous sommes parvenus à stabiliser voire enrayer la déforestation, en Amazonie nous avons eu une hausse très forte”, a déploré Luis Gilberto Murillo, ministre colombien de l’Environnement.

La situation est d’autant plus dramatique que la santé de la flore a un impact direct sur la qualité de vie de la faune. La forêt, qui recouvre une majeure partie du territoire colombien (52%), abrite en effet une biodiversité la plus riche du monde. Les chercheurs estiment d’ailleurs que 10% des espèces animales connues dans le monde vivent en Colombie.

Selon le rapport publié par les chercheurs de l’Ideam, la déforestation est à mettre sur le compte des activités humaines : le développement des pratiques d’élevage intensif, la construction d’infrastructures routières, l’exploitation du bois ou encore les cultures illégales. Les chiffres du rapport de l’Institut colombien révèlent d’ailleurs un phénomène très parlant : 75% des arbres abattus en Amazonie se situaient près d’une route.

Les milices qui se disputent le territoire depuis la disparition des Farc représentent également un danger pour la sauvegarde de la biodiversité et l’intégrité de la flore. On observe en revanche un phénomène inverse avec les “communautés indigènes”. Là où ces dernières sont présentes, les coupes forestières ont généralement tendance à diminuer.

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