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Brésil : le barrage de Belo Monte sera construit

Brésil : le barrage de Belo Monte sera construit
Le troisième plus grand barrage du monde va être construit. Le Brésil vient en effet d’autoriser la construction du barrage de Belo Monte. Une construction qui selon les écologistes met en péril la biodiversité et les populations indigènes de la zone

La forte mobilisation des écologistes et des indiens, qui remonte en fait à la fin des années 1980 (!), n’aura donc pas suffi à faire plier les autorités : Brasilia a donné un feu vert a priori définitif à la construction du barrage de Belo Monte, la superstructure la plus discutée d’Amérique du Sud. Tantôt désavoué tantôt conforté par la justice ces derniers mois, le gouvernement espère pouvoir faire face à l’accroissement de la demande énergétique et table aussi sur d’importantes retombées économiques.

« Belo Monte va garantir la sécurité économique en produisant 10% de l’énergie électrique du pays », soutient ainsi Edson Lobao, le ministre brésilien de l’Energie. Le barrage de Belo Monte générera également de nombreux emplois, les décideurs misant sur la création de 31 000 nouveaux postes.

Insuffisant toutefois pour dissiper la colère des défenseurs de l’environnement et des indigènes, dont 16 000 devraient être contraints de migrer. Outre un déboisement tout sauf négligeable dans une forêt amazonienne déjà ponctionnée de toutes parts, près de 500 km2 de terre seront inondés et de nombreuses espèces d’animaux pourraient voir leur habitat détruit. Selon Guadalupe Marengo, directrice adjointe du programme Amériques d’Amnesty International, le Brésil doit impérativement appliquer les recommandations de la Commission interaméricaine des droits de l’Homme : « poursuivre la construction de ce barrage avant de s’assurer que les droits des communautés indigènes seront protégés, revient à sacrifier les droits humains sur l’autel du développement », a-t-elle estimé.

La pétition lancée par Raoni,  le chef de la tribu des Kayapos qui vit à proximité du barrage, a eu un retentissement international mais le gouvernement est resté sourd à ses injonctions. Au grand dam de Nicolas Hulot, candidat à la primaire d’Europe Ecologie-Les Verts (EELV), pour qui cette décision démontre qu’« on ne tire aucune leçon des tragédies de l’Histoire. On devrait au minimum respecter ce qui reste de ces cultures, on s’ampute nous-mêmes » a-t-il déploré.

Il est loin d’être le seul à accuser le coup.

Crédits photo : wikimedia commons - Tiago Fioreze / Tom Oates
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