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Biocarburants : polémique autour de l’utilisation du jatropha en Allemagne

Biocarburants : polémique autour de l'utilisation du jatropha en Allemagne
La compagnie allemande Lufthansa pourrait à terme alimenter la totalité de sa flotte avec des biocarburants à base de jatropha

Dans les petits papiers des compagnies aériennes et notamment de la Lufthansa, les biocarburants à base de jatropha font actuellement jaser outre-Rhin. Bénéficiant de l’appui gouvernemental, suscitant un intérêt croissant des industriels dans ce contexte de hausse constante des prix de l’essence et d’épuisement programmé des ressources pétrolières, cette plante sauvage poussant dans des zones arides d’Amérique latine, d’Egypte, d’Inde ou encore de Madagascar, entre autres utilisée comme haie vive pour protéger les cultures et les habitations et capable de produire une huile aux propriétés similaires à celles du diesel (à condition d’être chauffée à cent dix degrés celsius), attise bien des convoitises.

Sauf que son exploitation soutenue, parce qu’impliquant des changements d’affectation des sols et donc susceptible de « rogner » sur les cultures vivrières, les prairies et les surfaces boisées, pourrait au bout du compte être à l’origine de ravages sur le fond identiques à ceux causés par la production à grande échelle d’huile de palme. Des effets pervers pointés dès 2009 par l’association Les Amis de la Terre mais qui n’ont fait changer d’avis ni la Lufthansa, ni Air New Zealand, ni Continental Airlines (États-Unis), ni Japan Airlines ni TAM Airlines (Brésil), pour citer quelques-unes de ces compagnies qui ont jeté leur dévolu sur le jatropha sans avoir pris en considération l’ensemble des dommages collatéraux que pouvait provoquer ce spectaculaire engouement.

Elles ont du reste été confortées par un rapport de la Faculté des études environnementales de Yale (États-Unis) publié à la fin du mois dernier, financé par l’avionneur Boeing – le détail à son importance – et selon lequel « le jatropha peut représenter des avantages environnementaux et socio-économiques », en particulier une réduction de 60 % des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) par rapport à un kérosène « classique ». Un pourcentage de nature à assurer un avenir radieux aux essences alternatives à base de jatropha et à Mission NewEnergy USA, plus grand producteur de jatropha à l’hectare planté et qui emploie déjà plus de cent quarante mille fermiers en Inde.

Les conclusions des chercheurs américains tranchent avec celles de plusieurs associations de protection de l’environnement pour qui l’impact écologique global des biocarburants à base de jatropha serait en réalité de 2,5 à 6 fois plus élevé que celui des essences standard (!) La culture intensive de la plante dégraderait en outre les conditions de vie des populations dans les pays en voie d’industrialisation, entre perte de terres, perte d’habitations et réduction des moyens de subsistance.

De fait les deux millions cinq cent mille euros qu’a débloqué Berlin en faveur de l’expérimentation conduite par la Lufthansa, qui court sur six mois et coûtera un total de six millions six cent mille euros, ne sont pas passés comme une lettre à la poste. Conscient du malaise, le ministère allemand de l’Environnement a cependant pris ses distances avec le scandale naissant, arguant qu’il n’y avait « aucun consensus à l’heure actuelle ». Ce qui dans un monde parfait devrait justement induire un minimum de prudence.

Crédits photos : flickr – Bill Abbott
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