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Un 1er vol d’essai réussi pour l’avion solaire SolarStratos

La Suisse vient à nouveau de s’illustrer dans le domaine de l’énergie solaire. L’avion solaire expérimental SolarStratos, développé pour des vols dans la stratosphère, a en effet effectué vendredi 5 mai son premier vol test à basse altitude. L’opération, menée par le pilote d’essai Damian Hischier sur le site de l’aéroport de Payerne, dans l’ouest de la Suisse, s’est déroulée avec succès.

“Le pilote d’essai a effectué un vol d’une durée de 7 minutes, à une hauteur de 300 mètres, avant de regagner sa base. Cette première sortie dans les airs du prototype (…) s’est parfaitement déroulée”, se sont félicité les initiateurs du projet dans un communiqué de presse.

L’objectif de ce premier vol d’essai était de voir comment se comporte en situation réelle d’utilisation l’avion solaire développé par Raphaël Domjan. SolarStratos s’est élancé sur le tarmac de l’aéroport suisse vers 8h et s’est progressivement élevé pour atteindre en quelques minutes les 300 mètres d’altitude grâce à la seule énergie fournie par les rayons du soleil. Ce dernier a d’ailleurs brillé par son absence : il était en effet caché derrière une couche nuageuse tout au long de l’opération. Cela a cependant permis de prouver que l’énergie photovoltaïque fonctionne également lorsque le soleil est caché.

“Après cinq ans de travail, on a réussi à faire voler un avion solaire. C’est incroyable. Maintenant on va effectuer une série de vols d’essais. La prochaine aura lieu à Montréal. Le défi sera de faire voler cet avion à l’étranger. Puis, nous envisageons de nous attaquer à tous les records d’altitude avec un avion électrique. Et nous vous réservons encore quelques surprises… Par ailleurs, ce projet initie des perspectives intéressantes sur le plan technologique et commercial. A terme, on pourra imaginer effectuer des déplacements entre deux grandes villes, avec des passagers”, explique Raphaël Domjan, concepteur de SolarStratos.

SolarStratos est un avion bi-place aux dimensions démesurées : il affiche une longueur de 8,5 mètres pour une envergure de… 24,8 mètres ! C’est notamment sur ses ailes étonnamment longues que sont disposées les 22 mètres carrés de cellules solaires qui lui permettent de se mouvoir sans utiliser une seule goute de carburant. Côté autonomie, SolarStratos devrait pouvoir atteindre sans difficulté la barre des 24 heures.

L’objectif du projet est de réaliser le premier vol stratosphérique à bord d’un avion fonctionnant grâce à une source d’énergie renouvelable : d’ici l’horizon 2019, l’équipe de Raphaël Domjan compte atteindre les 24.000 mètres d’altitude de manière totalement respectueuse de l’environnement, sans bruler une seule goute de kérosène. Le défi semble d’autant plus compliqué qu’il est impossible d’atteindre 24.000 mètres d’altitude avec un avion à propulsion classique.

Lorsqu’il sera en vol stationnaire à plus de 25 kilomètres de la surface de la Terre, Raphaël Domjan apercevra la courbure de la Terre et distinguera au-dessus de lui les étoiles, même en plein jour. Il devra cependant faire face à une température de -70°C et seulement 5% de la pression atmosphérique normale. Lourd de 450 kilos, l’avion ne pourra pas être pressurisé : le pilote devra donc revêtir une combinaison d’astronaute… elle aussi à l’énergie solaire. Il s’agira également d’une autre première mondiale.

Les porteurs du projet espèrent que leur expérience permettra de témoigner en faveur de la fiabilité des énergies renouvelable et de prouver leur “supériorité” face aux ressources énergétiques polluantes que sont le pétrole, le charbon et le gaz naturel. “Notre objectif est de démontrer qu’avec les technologies actuelles, il est possible de réaliser des prouesses qui dépassent le potentiel des énergies fossiles”.

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