Lyon, capitale verte ?

La capitale de la région Auvergne Rhône-Alpes fait figure de pionnière en matière de gestion des espaces verts et de lutte contre le changement climatique. Elle mise aussi sur les « smart grids » et sur le compteur Linky pour accélérer sa transition énergétique.

Vélib, couloirs de bus, voies sur berges rendues aux piétons… : la mairie de Paris mise, depuis plusieurs années, sur une stratégie de communication résolument « verte ». Une hégémonie médiatique qui fait parfois de l’ombre aux autres métropoles françaises, ces dernières n’ayant pourtant pas à rougir de leurs efforts en faveur d’une ville plus durable et responsable.

C’est le cas de « l’autre » capitale, celle des Gaules. Lyon, puisqu’il s’agit d’elle, se hisse presque tout en haut du classement des cinquante villes les plus vertes de l’Hexagone. La métropole lyonnaise est, en effet, classée quatrième au palmarès de l’Observatoire des villes vertes de France en 2017. Elle décroche même la troisième place dans la catégorie « développement et amélioration du patrimoine végétal ». Et la seconde en matière d’actions innovantes en faveur de la préservation de la biodiversité : 725 micro-implantations florales ont été créées à Lyon par les habitants depuis 2005, soit l’équivalent de 7 kilomètres de rues jardinées.

Lyon se donne les moyens de ses ambitions : en 2016, la ville a ainsi alloué quelque 25 millions d’euros pour le développement du « vert ». Le nouveau Plan local d’urbanisme et de l’habitat (PLU-H), adopté en septembre dernier, fait aussi la part belle à la préservation des zones agricoles et naturelles de la métropole. 700 hectares seront ainsi rendus à l’activité agricole, qui s’ajouteront aux 1 000 « déjà rendus à la nature » en 2005, se félicite Michel Le Faou, vice-président en charge de l’Urbanisme.

Pour lutter contre les effets du changement climatique, le PLU-H adopté par Lyon prévoit aussi de favoriser la « nature en ville » : augmentation de 762 hectares de la surface des espaces boisés, valorisation de 1 452 hectares supplémentaires d’espaces végétalisés ou encore création de 252 hectares d’espaces de plantations protégés sur le domaine public. Autant d’espaces préservés — la métropole parle de « trames vertes et bleues urbaines » — permettant aux Lyonnais de souffler durant les chaleurs estivales.

Cette politique de reconquête des espaces urbains s’incarne également par la requalification de friches en parcs et jardins, ou par la réalisation de grands projets, comme les berges du Rhône ou les rives de la Saône. Résultat : chaque Lyonnais dispose désormais de 32 min 2 s d’espaces verts à moins de 300 mètres de là où il se trouve.

Lyon, première métropole Linky

Planter des arbres, c’est bien ; mais cela ne suffit pas à faire une ville « verte », même et surtout à l’échelle d’une métropole comme Lyon. La transition énergétique exige un changement radical dans nos manières de produire et consommer l’énergie, au premier rang desquels l’électricité. Sur ce sujet également, la capitale des Gaules a un train d’avance.

Lyon est en effet la première grande ville « Full Linky ». Deux ans après leur déploiement, ce sont désormais 575 000 compteurs intelligents qui sont installés sur le territoire de la Métropole, permettant à plus d’un million de personnes de bénéficier des nouveaux services et avantages du boitier installé par Enedis (relevés en temps réel, interventions à distance, suivi de la consommation en ligne, etc.).

D’ici à la fin de l’année prochaine, la ville entière sera équipée du compteur Linky. Et Lyon pourra se targuer d’être en pointe sur les nouveaux réseaux électriques intelligents, ou « smart grids ». Une (r) évolution énergétique, qui va permettre, par exemple, le développement de l’autoconsommation, c’est-à-dire la capacité pour les particuliers ou entreprises de consommer l’énergie renouvelable qu’ils produisent eux-mêmes, via des panneaux solaires photovoltaïques, par exemple. Grâce à Linky, l’agglomération lyonnaise va lancer trois projets d’autoconsommation collective dans une quinzaine d’immeubles.

Enedis teste également à Lyon des solutions smart grids sur le réseau basse tension, celui qui alimente les ménages et PME. « La Métropole de Lyon est fière d’être un territoire pionnier en matière de déploiement des technologies “smart grids”, se réjouit David Kimelfeld, président de la Métropole. La généralisation du compteur Linky à l’échelle du territoire participe à la démarche de transition énergétique globale dans laquelle nous sommes engagés ».

Alors que l’ancien « Linko-sceptique » Nicolas Hulot, devenu ministre, a récemment déclaré à la radio s’être « fait une religion » sur le compteur Linky et penser « très sincèrement qu’il n’y a aucun danger », le temps où la prudence, voire la peur, prédominaient vis-à-vis du nouveau compteur, semble bien loin. Les métropoles comme Lyon ont pleinement intégré ce changement de paradigme.

À l’heure où les États semblent marquer le pas dans leur volonté de lutter efficacement contre le dérèglement climatique — le non-évènement que fut la COP23 en attestant — les grandes villes et, plus généralement, les collectivités territoriales ont toute leur part à jouer pour remporter ce défi. « Act local, think global » : les acteurs locaux ont toutes les solutions à leur portée : production décentralisée d’énergie, lutte contre la pollution atmosphérique…

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